Preparing for PPA Certification: Lighting


LIGHTING (25%)
This portion of the examination will measure (1) how to best light the subject; (2) possible types of lighting (Studio, Ambient, Flash, Daylight); (3) lighting design; and (4) lighting equipment.

 

Preparing for PPA Certification: Lighting – Section A

A. Evaluate the source(s) of light at the location where subject(s) will be photographed to determine the tools necessary to complete the assignment. (4 items)
1. Knowledge of various light sources and light equipment to created desired effects
2. Knowledge of how to use remote triggering (infrared, photosensitive, or radio)


Preparing for PPA Certification: Lighting – Section B

B. Determine the lighting ratio. (3 items)
1. Knowledge of establishing desired lighting ratios


Preparing for PPA Certification: Lighting – Section C

C. Understand light modifiers (light blockers, black reflectors, gels, spots, flags, etc.) and their uses. (3 items)
1. Knowledge of use of modification devices to achieve desired effects (gels, reflectors, umbrellas, softboxes, foil, parabolics, etc.)
2. Knowledge of additive and subtractive light

Preparing for PPA Certification: Lighting – Section D

D. Determine the type of lighting design (Rembrandt, split, broad, short, etc.) to be used with the given subject(s). (4 items)
1. Knowledge of soft, hard and diffused light sources for producing desired effects
2. Knowledge of desired light pattern effects that can be obtained on different subjects and/or background (individuals, groups, weddings, tabletop, outdoors, etc.)
3. Knowledge of directing and combining lights (corrective lighting) with different subjects to create desired effects and complement them


Preparing for PPA Certification: Lighting – Section E, Part 1 of 2

E. Determine the appropriate lighting usage (main, fill, etc.) for subject(s). (6 items)
1. Knowledge and placement of main/key, fill, background, accent lights to achieve desired effects (control shadows, create depth, enhance subject matter)
2. Knowledge of techniques for controlling/utilizing light (natural light, window, outdoor, studio, mixed, incandescent, florescent, painting with light)
3. Knowledge of backlighting for producing desired effects
4. Knowledge of lighting products (reflective, transparent, translucent, opaque)
5. Knowledge of using flash fill techniques (indoor and outdoor; Sunny 16 rule)
6. Knowledge of on-camera and off-camera flash techniques (TTL, manual)

Preparing for PPA Certification: Lighting – Section E, Part 2 of 2


Preparing for PPA Certification: Lighting – Section F

F. Understand the theory of light. (3 items)
1. Knowledge of the light spectrum, color temperature and color balance
2. Knowledge of the properties of reflectance (angle of reflectance equals angle of incidence, influence on color, etc.)
3. Knowledge of the properties of light (fall-off, size of light source, depth of light, inverse square law, distance to subject, etc.)


Preparing for PPA Certification: Lighting – Section G

G. Select the appropriate filter/gel for color correction of the light source. (1 item)
1. Knowledge of filters and gels used for color correction


Preparing for PPA Certification: Lighting – Section H

H. Use lighting techniques as composition and design elements (1 item) 1. Knowledge of how to coordinate composition and lighting to create the desired effect
2. Knowledge of the use of gels, grids, or cookies to alter the relationship among subjects or products.

 

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